Recovery 2-Day (North Pass Edition)

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Coleman — a veteran of more than marathons and ultras including 4 Deserts' Atacama Crossing and 10 Marathon des Sables — has just clocked his fastest marathon time in 14 years on the back of running 28 miles a day for 28 days to publicise the government's Stoptober campaign, so knows a thing or two about endurance training. He advises a schedule based on week-long blocks of medium effort, hard effort and harder effort, followed by a recovery week.

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For me, that's miles medium , miles hard , miles harder and 20 miles recovery — starting at the lower end of those ranges and building up as the four-week cycle repeats. Back-to-back runs — for example, running 20 miles on Saturday and another 20 on Sunday — are a key component. Some weeks I'll also squeeze in a fast 13 miles on the Friday so I enter the back-to-back weekend fatigued and get used to running on tired legs. My training peaks with four consecutive milers.

There will be at least one long run a week with a pack slightly lighter about 5kg than the one I'll be carrying in the Gobi about 7. And Coleman suggests any time I can spend hiking in the mountains will pay off too because rough trails, hills and tiredness mean I will be power-walking some of the way.

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Strength training will prepare my back and shoulder muscles for the burden of six days running with a heavy rucksack — seated rows to work the rhomboids, dumbbell shrugs for the traps and lat pull downs for the latissimus dorsi — plus the usual daily plank, sit-ups and squats session to maintain core strength. But strengthening the mind is important too and if you can run four consecutive mile runs back-to-back you'll know you can do anything.

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After launch, responsibility for flight operations switches to the Missions Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, where three flight control teams FCTs are used to staff the Missions Operations Directorate for flights of less than 10 days.

When flights of 10 days or longer are planned, a fourth FCT is added to allow team members time off. Although shift lengths vary, hour shifts are not uncommon. Flight controllers average less than one break per shift range 0. Flight controllers are responsible for a wide range of cognitive tasks, including sustained trend analysis, monitoring of multiple voice channels, and rapid responses to emergency situations.

Cognitive processing and vigilance must remain high because even small mistakes can be operationally significant Kelly et al. In contrast, the sleep patterns of astronauts have been monitored since the early days of the space program Aschoff, ; Pittendrigh, After just a day or so in translunar drift, the astronauts got accustomed to the constant flickering and went about their sleep-wake, work-rest schedules as if the sun were rising and setting outside their craft just as it did outside their homes in Houston.

As long as the crew maintained that schedule, NASA's flight surgeons had learned, their circadian rhythms would remain largely un-disturbed. Even on a routine flight, no one expected the pilots to sleep a full eight hours. The almost total lack of physical exertion in space and the almost constant output of adrenaline that accompanied the business of flying to the moon made five or six hours of sack time the most the medics could hope for.

Those five or six hours, however, were absolutely essential if a crew that was flying even a nominal mission was going to make it through their day without making some serious, and perhaps disastrous, mistake. A crew that was flying a less than nominal mission would need even more rest. Lovell and Kluger, In the second row of Mission Control, the flight surgeon had been copying down the answers the men gave, and the totals had begun to alarm him.

Since Monday night, the crew had been averaging about three hours of sleep apiece per day. It was Friday morning….


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These anecdotal reports of shortened sleep times have been confirmed by both subjective and objective studies Dijk et al. Despite preflight circadian adaptation measures and in-flight schedules to optimize circadian adaptation and minimize sleep loss, astronauts typically sleep only 6 to 6. Polysomnography sleep studies using electroencephalogram [EEG], electro-occulogram [EOG], and electromyogram [EMG] recordings have shown more wakefulness and less slow-wave deep sleep in the final third of sleep episodes while in space and marked increases in rapid eye movement REM or dreaming sleep after return to earth Dijk et al.


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Astronauts frequently use hypnotics during flights Putcha et al. Like Air Force pilots, as discussed earlier, astronauts are allowed to decide whether to take stimulants usually dextroamphetamine. A final selection from Apollo 13 illustrates one astronaut's decision-making process regarding the use of stimulants:.

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In the spacecraft, Lovell, Haise, and Swigert were in their accustomed places, all awake and all feeling reasonably alert. Lovell had decided against the Dexedrine tablets Slayton had prescribed for his crew last night, knowing that the lift from the stimulants would be only fleeting, and the subsequent letdown would leave them feeling even worse than they did now.

For the time being, the commander had decided, the astronauts would get by on adrenaline alone. Fatigue countermeasures programs usually consist of an educational component Comperatore and Kingsley, undated; Comperatore et al. Employees are generally given information about circadian rhythms, sleep hygiene measures, shiftwork and its adverse affects, and a variety of strategies that can be used to counter fatigue e. Some industries have also added information about sleep disorders to their presentations Intermodal Transportation Institute, a.

Managers are urged to consider altering the starting times of shifts whenever possible to make schedules more compatible with circadian rhythms; to avoid scheduling employees to work more than two or three consecutive night shifts; and to provide adequate recovery times between shifts, especially when an employee is rotating off night shift.

Attendees have included representatives from all areas of aviation; other modes of transportation, including the rail, trucking, and maritime industries; health care; the petrochemical industry; nuclear energy; and law enforcement. Follow-up data gathered from workshop attendees suggest that over , flight crews and other employees, including some physicians, have received educational materials on combating fatigue.

Although over , employees have been exposed to fatigue countermeasures programs, there is very limited information about their efficacy. Typical reports indicate that some aspects of a particular program were successful e.

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To date, no one has tested the efficacy of this type of intervention in a population of hospital staff nurses. A fatigue countermeasures program for nurses is currently being developed at the University of Pennsylvania, and will soon be tested using nurses from four ICUs two control and two intervention. Subjective and objective measures of alertness and vigilance will be obtained before the program is implemented and 4 weeks following implementation. Although errors and near errors will also be recorded during the baseline and later data collection periods, this pilot study may not have sufficient power to detect changes in error rates.

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Hours-of-service regulations have not always emerged from the results of rigorous scientific research. Many of the original regulations were written in response to a disaster, such the grounding of an oil tanker or the death of young woman Libby Zion in a New York City hospital, or to protect a particular industry or group of employees e. Amending existing hours-of-service regulations has often been a difficult if not impossible undertaking, even when the proposed changes are supported by scientific evidence. Employees, unions, owners, and professional associations often oppose any regulation that is perceived to reduce the earning power of employees, involve hiring more employees, or cost more money.

Other regulations, such as driving-time limits for truckers, although enforceable, are easily circumvented. Fatigue countermeasures programs, which require employees to take responsibility for acquiring sufficient sleep and remaining alert on the job, are often used in place of and along with hours-of-service regulations. Although no particular approach, whether work hour regulation, guidelines, fatigue countermeasures programs, or some combination of these, can be applied to all industries or all settings within a particular industry, there appears to be some agreement that working longer than 12 consecutive hours without at least 8 hours off duty can be hazardous.

Accident rates rise exponentially after 12 hours of work, particularly when employees work at night. Some work environments limit nighttime workers to shorter shifts e. Many industries in which fatigued employees could compromise public safety do not allow employees to work more than 8—12 consecutive hours. More research is needed to understand the effects of fatigue on patient safety.

Controlled trials are needed to determine optimal work schedules in hospital settings and to test fatigue countermeasures. This appendix was prepared for the committee to inform its deliberations by Ann E. Rogers, Ph.


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  • New York State Health Code. The Bell Regulations. Other measures included the Hours of Service Act of ; the Ash Pan Act, designed to prevent injury to workers cleaning ashes from engines not equipped with ash pans; the Safety Appliances Act, requiring standardized equipment for breaking, couplers, and handholds; the Block Signal Act, which provided incentives for the testing and installation of automatic signaling devices; and the Locomotive Boiler Inspection Act.

    United States No. Supreme Court Hours of Service Act.

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    Defined as severe damage to the vessel, capable of causing crew fatalities. A 1-in-4 watch schedule requires crew members to work two 4-hour periods the first day e. A 1-in-5 schedule requires crew members to stand watch from to and from to on the first day, from to the second day, from to the third day, from to on the fourth day, and from to on the fifth day. United States Federal Regulations 46, — If a carrier operates 7 days a week, a driver may work 70 hours in 8 consecutive days. If a carrier operates less than 7 days a week, a driver may work only 60 hours in 7 consecutive days.

    Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term.

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    Nurses The hours worked by registered nurses RNs are of particular concern since they provide the bulk of direct inpatient hospital care; moreover, studies have demonstrated that the care provided by RNs is vital for maintaining the well-being of hospitalized patients Aiken et al. Physicians The hours physicians work, particularly during their residency training, are often quite demanding.

    Military Personnel Although the U. Nuclear Power Plant Workers Although the dangers of a nuclear power plant accident have been recognized from the industry's inception in the s, regulations have focused exclusively on reactor design, training programs, and licensing requirements. Railroad Employees Although railroads were the predominant mode of intercity travel at the beginning of the twentieth century, rail travel was dangerous for employees and passengers alike.

    Marine Employees U. The need for off-duty time was also recognized: It is obvious that a man cannot work efficiently or be a safe driver if he does not have an opportunity for approximately 8 hours sleep in Aviation Industry Although Charles Lindbergh was not the first pilot to experience the effects of fatigue, his description of fighting fatigue during his transatlantic flight graphically illustrates the dangers of tired pilots: My mind clicks on and off.

    Printup, Lindbergh landed safely near Paris after flying for Aerospace Industry No regulations or guidelines limit work hour durations in the aerospace industry.