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Finally, pianistic virtuosity reached an unprecedented level of excellence, as the careers of Granados, Albeniz, Nin, Joaquim Malats, and Ricardo Vines all attest. A pianist of international reputation, he composed mainly for the keyboard; his works range from the unpretentious salon pieces of his youth to the justly renowned GoyescasSsuite.. As Spain's first modern piano pedagogue, heEE authored one of the earliest treatments of pedaling; Granados also founded a musical academy that numbers pianist Alicia de Larrocha and soprano Conchita Badia among its graduates.
Less known than his piano works are his chamber and orchestral works, among them a symphonic poem based on the DivinaACommedia. Undoubtedly the high point of his career was his United States tour in , during which several of his works received their American premieres. Granados's death at age forty-eight abruptly ended a career still full of promise.
SinceNCE few books and articles devoted solely to Granados exist, sources on or by individuals closely associated with the composer Pedrell, Casals, Frank Marshall have been examined. It quickly became clear, however, that many books and articles on Granados were filled with inaccuracies; therefore, contemporary articles from newspapers and artistic journals form the basis of this study.
In Chapter 1, Biography, only the more significant discrepancies between sources have been noted; citing every inaccuracy in dating would have been unprofitable and cumbersome. The Bibliography, Chapter 2, encompasses books, journal articles, selected dictionary and encyclopedia entries, theses and dissertations, program notes, and newspaper articles on Granados. Untitled reviews are arranged chronologically. The Music Division of the New York Public Library maintains a clipping file on the composer; these entries are cited with the abbreviation NYPL since many of the short articles and reviews on file do not give complete bibliographic details.
The final section of the Bibliography includes selected correspondence to, from, or about Granados arranged chronologically; in lieu of the occasional missing date or place of writing, the archive source is cited. Works, Chapter 3, also posed certain difficulties. Second, many works were published posthumously, and then with arbitrary opus numbers, some of which have been maintained by biographers. Granados's own working habits further complicate attempts to establish a chronology of his output. His correspondence reveals that he frequently reworked earlier compositions that he had absent-mindedly or hastily sold often under financial pressure in unrevised form; therefore, only broad chronological categories can be established.
Here, works have been arranged alphabetically a listing by scoring appears in Appendix 1. Conflicting opus numbers have been noted and publication information and manuscript locations given when possible. Also, since many of Granados's works are widely known through arrangements by other composers, a representative sampling of these arrangements is given at the end of the Works section.
Indiana University Press, , and similar references. Finally, since I have had limited access to the Granados family archives it was not always possible for me to update the efforts of two earlier catalogers, Iglesias and Tarazona both of whom tend to cite unpublished works without giving manuscript information. A work for which no location was available to me is therefore listed with its references in either Iglesias or Tarazona, and can be assumed to be part of the family archive.
Listings of publishers is by no means allinclusive. Granados's unpublished pedagogical writings are cited by Boladeres Ibern. Chapter 4, Discography, is a selective list of recordings currently available or of historical interest. Appendix 2 is a chronology of musical, artistic, literary, and political events during Granados's lifetime, with emphasis on developments in Spanish music. Unless otherwise specified, all translations are my own. In general, given the choice of Catalan or Castilian spellings, the more familiar usage has prevailed, e. Standardization of written Catalan did not occur until years after Granados's death; also, a change in Castilian accentuation took place during the s.
Both of these factors, in addition to inconsistencies in Granados's written French, have caused the author to transcribe all citations as they appeared in the original source, with no attempt at correction. A research and travel grant generously provided by the Generalitat de Catalunya through the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Barcelona was essential for the collection of data in several institutions in Barcelona. It is also a pleasure to acknowledge the willing assistance of several individuals: I am also especially grateful to Alejandro Planchart University of California, Santa Barbara for reading the manuscript in its final stages.
Douglas Riva's generosity in providing materials from his own collection on the composer cannot be overstated; Mrs. Janos Scholz of the Schelling Archive in New York City gave graciously of her time and energy to make available important items of Granados's correspondence.
In addition to Florence Myer's and Barbara DeMarco's editorial scrutiny, the interest and assistance of Greenwood's editorial staff are particularly appreciated, as is the clerical assistance of Pat Vercruyssen. Finally, special thanks to Dorothy Weicker, to whom this volume is warmly dedicated.
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After a short assignment in Lleida, he was stationed as Military Governor in Santa Cruz de Tenerife for three and a half years. Granados states in his diary that the family moved to Barcelona around to take up residence in the Carrer Fenosa and later in the Passeig de Gracia. Back in Barcelona, Granados was advised to study with Joan Baptista Pujol , then considered the best piano teacher in Barcelona.
Several biographers cite July 29, , as Granados's date of birth, probably because the composer's son Victor incorrectly gave the latter date. Tarazona incorrectly identifies the Emperor as Peter I. Pujol's contribution to the foundation of the so-called Catalan Piano School has been characterized by "[emphasis upon] clarity, color, and a mastery of the secrets of the pedals. Granados's later comment that the Schumann sonata was "the first decent work" he studied gives some idea of the level of his previous training. The following year he began harmony and composition studies with Pedrell.
Although these studies laid the foundations for Granados's mature style, Pedrell's influence on the younger composer is ambiguous. Largely self-taught, Pedrell has been attacked for failure to provide his many students with a secure technical foundation. A common criticism of Granados that can presumably be traced to Pedrell, for example, is lack of finesse with larger forms; ever under the spell of Wagner, Pedrell made several attempts to imitate Wagnerian grandiosity, as in his vast, unsuccessful operatic trilogy, ElsPirineus.
In a positive vein, how-, HOWever, Pedrell is justly credited for having initiated the nineteenthcentury "Spanish musical renaissance," primarily through his transcriptions of hundreds of regional folk tunes and his desire to expose his students to this rich heritage.
All were encouraged to embrace Spanish musical nationalism in their own fashion, as evidenced in the sharply defined personalities of Granados, Albeniz, and Falla. Thus, although they differed in orientation, Granados was always quick to acknowledge Pedrell's influence in his artistic and philosophical development, and despite a short-lived public controversy in the two maintained consistently cordial relations. Lessons with Pedrell may have ended because of financial strain brought about by the death of Granados's father earlier.
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In January of it was decided that Granados would work as a cafe-pianist to help support the large family, and soon he was employed five hours daily at the Cafe de las Delicias. The setting for Narcis Oiler's novel La Bogeria,,the Delicias was once one of Barcelona's best cafes, but by the E time of Granados's brief tenure there, the atmosphere had deteriorated markedly.
The management's tastes leaned towards opera pastiches laden with cheap pianistic flourishes efectos Swhich Granados found himselfELF incapable of producing; as a result of his artistic scruples, he soon found himself out of work. Biography1Y 7 the attention of Catalan entrepreneur Eduard Conde.
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Conde, who had already underwritten some of Granados's educational expenses, promptly engaged Granados to teach his own children for the then exorbitant rate of one hundred pesetas a month. Despite the prestige of being the best-paid piano teacher in Barcelona, however, Granados realized that a complete musical education was impossible in Spain, and with Conde's support, his goal of studying in Paris became feasible.
To defray some of his expenses Granados again found cafe work, this time--with no illusions--at the Cafe Filipino. Although by the turn of the century cafe and cabaret life in Barcelona would reach a level comparable to Montmartre's Auberge du Clou, such sophistication was not apparent during Granados's two-month stint at the Filipino, where, in addition to improvising on popular melodies, he was expected to accompany patrons of dubious musical gifts, an activity he later engagingly described in his diary.
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In September Granados was finally able to leave for Paris. It has been said that "de Beriot empathized more with the Spanish students than did Louis Diemer, the other prominent pedagogue at the Conservatoire. Although most sources give B The matter is complicated by Granados's recollection in his diary B According to Elaine Brody B In the age limit for admission was twenty-two Granados would have just turned twenty ; in a quota of two foreign students per class was imposed.
The length of his illness is not known. As a piano student in Paris, Granados was routinely exposed to de Beriot's insistence on extreme refinement in tone production; his subsequent interest in pedal technique is also attributed to his teacher's influence. Another area de Beriot emphasized was improvisation. Although the practice of preluding i. Already highly skilled as an improviser, his work with de Beriot only reinforced this natural ability.
Paris's impact on Granados the young composer is less clear. Debussy, for example, had composed little but early "Wagnerian" songs and the Two ArabesqueseSforRpiano. GranadosOS seems to have established contacts in more conservative French musical circles, such as his associations with d'Indy and the Schola Cantorum. Indeed, although Granados maintained ties with Paris throughout his career, the modern French idiom never attracted him as it did Albeniz; rather, his mature style reflects the late-Romantic propensity for meandering chromaticism, virtuosic flourishes, and thematic reminiscence.
Nevertheless, it has been claimed that his juxtaposition of modal and tonal writing and his use of the augmented triad, "which he frequently used in a coloristic way rather than as a means of obscuring the tonality" can be attributed to French influence. After two years abroad and several unsuccessful attempts to interest Parisian publishers in his music, Granados returned to Barcelona on July 14, There is confusion among biographers regarding Granados 's association with this important figure; Iglesias, for example, claims with no apparent justification that Granados lodged with Catalan tenor Francesc Virias.
Biography 9 Early Career: Published individually in the early s, the Spanish Dances were the first works by which Granados gained international recognition, for Cui, Massenet, SaintSaens and Grieg all praised them.
On April 20, , Granados made his official debut at Barcelona's Teatre Liric-'- where he premiered several original compositions: The concert typified that era's tastes in programming; in addition to the above, Granados performed Saint-Saens's Allegro appassionato, Bizet's Minuet from L'Arlesie. Musical , Souvenir de Tannhauser, and yet another Mozart arrangement. The press greeted Cranados's compositions enthusiastically, arid one reviewer emphasized die new depth the young composer's style had acquired in Paris: As a pianist, he is of the refined and elegant type.
As a composer, the work we were favored with, the Sere. At the Palace of Sciences on July 31, , he performed several of the Dances with the newly founded Orfeo Catala Cranados's involvement in this organization's initial stages is described below.