Aspects of the City
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The authors analyse the different aspects of urban planning that, to different extents, affect our physical and mental well-being, from the population density of the city to the mixed use of the land or the road network configuration. The book offers highly practical content that can be useful both for public policy makers within the domains of health and urban planning and for professionals in the field.
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Non-Cognitive Aspects of the City – Famoudou Don Moye
Zoning and urban planning in France and Germany are regulated by national or federal codes. In the case of Germany this code includes contents of zoning plans as well as the legal procedure. Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots such as open space, residential , agricultural , commercial or industrial , the densities at which those activities can be performed from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings , the height of building process is known as a Sustainability Appraisal.
The urban canyon effect is a colloquial, non-scientific term referring to street space bordered by very high buildings. This type of environment may shade the sidewalk level from direct sunlight during most daylight hours. While an oft-decried phenomenon, it is rare except in very dense, hyper-tall urban environments, such as those found in Lower and Midtown Manhattan, Chicago's Loop and Hong Kong's Kowloon and Central. In urban planning, sound is usually measured as a source of pollution.
Another perspective on urban sounds is developed in Soundscape studies emphasising that sound aesthetics involves more than noise abatement and decibel measurements. Hedfors  coined 'Sonotope' as a useful concept in urban planning to relate typical sounds to a specific place. Light pollution has become a problem in urban residential areas, not only as it relates to its effects on the night sky, but as some lighting is so intrusive as to cause conflict in the residential areas and paradoxically intense improperly installed security lighting may pose a danger to the public, producing excessive glare.
The development of the full cutoff fixture, properly installed, has reduced this problem considerably. Water and sanitation services are key considerations in the planning of cities. This encompasses water provision, waste-water treatment, and sewage infrastructure. Within urban environments, there are a number of disparities with regards to access to these services. Because most slums are informal settlements with no tenure rights , their illegal status excludes them from official listings and thus excludes them from access to municipal water and sanitation services.
Economic status is highly correlated to water and sanitation service access in urban environments. But economic status is often tied to other demographic characteristics such as caste, ethnicity, and race.
Therefore, access to water and sanitation services is an equity issue that faces urban planners working for urban governments. In the absence of policy to address these infrastructural disparities, the urban poor and minorities suffer disproportionately. Water and sanitation issues relate directly to health outcomes due to the susceptibility to disease experienced by populations that lack adequate access.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, diseases like cholera were particularly feared due to their devastating effects and due to their proliferation in areas with poor waste management practices. Diarrheal illnesses are perhaps today the leading type of waterborne disease with cities like Jakarta experiencing disease rates as high as 50 cases per people.
The government in Uganda has acknowledged the role of sanitation in improving public health among the poor, but as NGOs and CBOs have pointed out, the government has been unable to adequately address the need for these services in urban environments or the high cost of procuring these services from private service providers. One aspect of sanitation infrastructure that is a major determinant of environmental health in slums is the latrine.
There are a number of variables surrounding latrines and sewage which can play a critical role in determining health outcomes for urban families, including latrine location in house versus out of house , latrine usage family vs community , and latrine type for example pit latrine versus toilet. Furthermore, the latrine is a critical aspect of urban household-level layouts and designs. Waste-water collection and treatment has always been an important consideration in urban planning, but it is becoming increasingly critical as urban population levels rise and water conservation becomes a growing concern.
Many planners are now considering how to properly incorporate waste-water treatment into urban environments in effective, and equitable ways. In the US, prior to the 19th century, cities often used a de-centralised privy vault-cesspool model for waste management.
Urban households had vaults or tubs beneath their latrines, which would collect waste-water until the vaults needed to be emptied into a nearby cesspool. This model worked at the time due to relatively low urban populations. Since the 19th century, water-carriage sewage management has been preferred by planners due to its scalability. However, more recently, de-centralised waste water management has made a resurgence among planners and researchers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Urban decay. Main article: Slums. Main article: Urban renewal.
Publications and Reports
Main article: Transportation planning. Main articles: Suburbanisation and Urban sprawl.
Main article: Environmental planning. Main article: Toilet. Main article: Sewage treatment.
Paintings reflect aspects of the city’s life, artist says
The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 11 August Traditional Architecture Group. Retrieved 23 March An article on Jane Jacobs. Archived from the original on 7 January Kelling, Catherine M. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 21 March The Guardian. Retrieved on The Times Of India. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here.
Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract Purpose — The city can be viewed from many perspectives. Findings — The city might be seen in this context of a more or less good city regime to support the value creation from and for the knowledge workers. Practical implications — The city design is the critical organizational and relational capital of tomorrow for the knowledge worker.
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