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E era um homem em chagas nojentas, leproso mesmo, um terminado. Eu tinha que esmagalhar aquela coisa desumana. Maria Mutema, Sr.

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Aleixo, Sr. However, the man may just as well be hiding out of fear of the approaching narrator-protagonist. This implies that the narrator has wandered into the Meio-Norte region of Brazil, if not the actual rainforest. The shape, size, distribution, and discoloration white on green of these patches strongly resemble those found on patients with borderline leprosy BB. The medieval Salernitans incorporated among their four humoral types of leprosy a variety called tyria, which was associated with phlegm.

The choice of the verb enroscar is telling, since it reinforces the idea of the leper as serpentine. Like an enormous serpent in the treetops, the character communicates through motion and physical behavior, but seemingly lacks the capacity for speech. Uns assim fazem. Though there was no truth to the rumor, Philip V responded by ordering that all lepers be investigated and, if found guilty, burnt at the stake. His decree resulted in a ruthless wave of violence against anyone suspected of having leprosy. The term feda is related to the Latin fetor [stench] from which the verb feder derives.

Prior to the Renaissance, when authors and physicians began to stress the visually unappealing aspects of the disease, they focused primarily on its olfactory symptoms. Riobaldo wants to kill the leper but struggles to do so, imagining what Diadorim might say about the situation Condenado de maldito, por toda lei, aquele estrago de homem estava; remarcado: seu corpo, sua culpa! Que o que Diadorim dissesse, que dissesse.

Eu desmentia. What is it specifically about this man that bothers Riobaldo? Me franzi. Ele tinha a culpa? Eu tinha a culpa? Are we to blame for the states in which we discover the bodies of others? Tinham o direito? Estava certo?


Meio modo, acho que foi bom. Essentially, the girl is treated like a saint. Her decision not to eat and to limit what she drinks is honored. But once the regional police inspector arrives everything changes. The official avails himself of military power and orders those gathered around the girl to disperse.

She is then seized and committed to a mental institution in the capital, where she is force-fed through a gastric tube. He explains that forced intervention is a positive solution, since it motivates other disabled people in the community to voluntarily seek out treatment. It turns out to be a double- edged sword though because, following the incident with the girl, swarms of people suddenly come forward demanding to be cured.

The description of this group is crucial for three reasons: first, it lumps together individuals with a vast array of diseases and disabilities, including chronic and acute illnesses, physical deformities, and mental illnesses. For Riobaldo, the disabled constitute an aesthetic assault he finds it challenging to withstand. He seems to feel that members of this group should either be cured by God or allowed to die so that they cannot inhabit the world.

What is truly compelling about these details of the passage is the manner in which they drive home the materiality of disability in GSV. The conditions to which Riobaldo refers are not allegorical, as critics have asserted, but very much lived realities grounded in the bodies of the disabled characters. Clear as day, the narrator proclaims that what these people want is a medical cure, not faith. However, the text provides numerous clues that can be used to re construct a portrait of this individual, whose personality is inextricably tied to his family legacy of leprosy.

Trigueiro is also the common name of several species of birds found in Portugal—finches, buntings or sparrows, and thrushes—making this the first of numerous avian references to the character. The biggest indicator is the word Bahia. During the period in question, Bahia had already established itself demographically as an Afro-Brazilian province. Anadelia A. Por que? Castigo, de que? The import of this trope of family should not be underestimated. Leprosy is a disease both slow and sudden, anticipated and unexpected. That the disease is simultaneously foreseeable and unpredictable relates back to the matter of family history.

Leprosy in GSV is a masculine affliction, which is astonishing given that it was generally associated, in other literary and cultural con texts, with women Edmond According to Riobaldo, leprosy resembles the first kind of love—the kind Riobaldo feels for Diadorim. It develops inside a person without their knowledge or consent, with the individual only becoming aware of its presence when it abruptly expresses itself, already fully blossomed and mature. At that point, nothing can be done to extricate it, for it is permanently fixed in the body.

E carregava espelhinho na algibeira, nele furtava sempre uma olhada. Danado de tudo. Because one of the four humoral types of leprosy was identified with snake- like characteristics, theriac, with its serpentine components, was thought to be a particularly effective therapy for the prevention and treatment of leprosy A somewhat gangly and awkward looking creature, the Jabiru is nonetheless impressive for its height and powerful flying ability.

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This epoch was characterized by imperial collapse on the part of some nations, including Portugal, and expansion on the part of others, such as Great Britain. To complicate matters, the medical establishment viewed leprosy as both hereditary and contagious. In the meantime, Brazilian scientists were formulating their own theories about relationships between race and disease which in some respects echoed those of the British, German, and French, but diverged in other important ways from the ideologies of their European colleagues. One camp downplayed the role of race in epidemiology, while their detractors swore by racially deterministic models of disease transmission.

None of these individuals are what they appear to be. Leprosy as theorized by Rodrigues is par excellence a disease of miscegenation. The physician attributed the genesis of the malady in Brazil to two sources: Portuguese colonizers and African slaves ; A chart compiled by the author reflects these patterns. Rodrigues is careful to stress that leprosy is not native to Brazil, and his findings reflect the conviction that the disease spreads through miscegenation. According to this model, racial mixing and leprosy are two sides of the same coin: talking about miscegenation becomes a way to talk about leprosy and, conversely, talking about leprosy becomes a coded way to discuss race and miscegenation, particularly between blacks and whites.

Rather, it freely proliferated in the new environment through the interaction of members of various races, finding its ultimate expression in the living embodiments of their reproductive fusion—caboclos and mulatos. Miguel Vale de Almeida sums it up nicely: The colonial system was based on the slaveocratic and patriarchal family that conveyed sui generis sexual morality, as well as a special version of Catholicism.

All feared the spread of diseases like leprosy. Both theories posit racial characteristics as climatologically dependent, with different races best suited to the climates that originally produced them. The vast majority of these date from the Middle Ages in the case of the siege engine to the eighteenth century. In addition to their supply of antiquated weaponry and money, the catrumanos are unique for another reason; they are probably of mixed race—what Rodrigues would classify as cafusos.

Zambo is, of course, a Brazilian term for the offspring of an indigenous mother and an African or Afro- Brazilian father. In other words, the catrumanos bear the marks of contact with Europeans not just in the form of cultural artifacts, but in their bodies as well. This chapter is a transitional one because it marks a shift in focus from the first four, which explore physical disability and some of its aesthetic implications.

What has remained consistent over time is the link between aberrant speech and atypical motor activity—that is, the understanding of speech production as stemming from both physical and psychological dynamics Silverman Speech disorders, unlike blindness or leprosy, are not immediately observable based on physical appearance or gestural and postural cues.


An individual with a speech disorder will not be branded as such by way of visual indicators, but rather acoustic ones. Joshua St. Pierre contends that speech disorders are always constructed within dialogues; they are the product of interactions between speakers and listeners The connection between fluency and masculinity is reinforced continuously throughout the text, but several episodes act as especially potent illustrations of this linkage. The men display varying degrees of skill and cogency in articulating their views Me o meu?

Aprumei corpo. Tomei coragem mais comum. Abri a minha boca.

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Yet again, Riobaldo is stopped short before he can give voice to his thoughts. Comecei a falar. Riobaldo propels forward, snapping his fingers, and then begins to speak. However, the narrator lacks solid command of his vocal productions. Diadorim tries to silence him, but Riobaldo keeps going as if against his will. While Riobaldo occasionally struggles during his speech, pausing between declarations and fearing he will lose his turn whenever competing and potentially more powerful voices chime in , his overall effort is a success.

O que olhei — Joca Ramiro teria estado a gestos? It is as though the speech is an event that happens to the narrator or is inflicted upon him , as opposed to being a faculty he commands. Once it is over, Riobaldo is left trembling with fear and wishing he were invisible. Riobaldo-Tatarana wants to be acknowledged as possessing a level of skill with words similar to that he displays with arms, but unfortunately he falls short when it comes to verbal dexterity.

The subtle insinuation is that not only did Riobaldo speak somewhat awkwardly—perhaps too long-windedly—but that this kind of linguistic production is atypical of the character. It appears that Riobaldo is all bombast and very little substance. His speech fills over two pages, compared with all of the other characters who speak for mere sentences or, at most, a paragraph. Para que tanta sensaboria toda, essas filosofias? This will be another opportunity for him to demonstrate his linguistic prowess—or will it?

Riobaldo is baffled but obeys while Bebelo urges him on, repeating the directive.

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In fact, he already knew how to read and write when he hired Riobaldo as a tutor As the narrator continues transcribing, he remarks upon some special features of the paper he is using: Advindo que algum me trouxe mais papel, achado por ali, nos quartos, em remexidas gavetas. Um favor de carta, de tempos idos, num vigente fevereiro, 11, quando ainda se tinha Imperador, no nome dele com respeito se falava. Outras cartas All of the letters deal with government and, on a micro level, with power relations between men—from the respectful epistle about the Emperor by one of his subjects to the announcement of the arrival of the shipment of goods imports and exports traded by wealthy men to the receipted bill for the purchase of slaves bought and sold by male landowners.